Fashion Week

For some people, what you wear is very important because it defines you. The shoes, clothes, accessories, and bags say something about you. And most of the times, other people judge us based from the things that we wear. Thus, shoppers are always excited for the much awaited Fashion Week.

Fashion Week is a very important event for the fashion industry. It lasts approximately one week where fashion designer, brands or ‘houses’ display their latest collections in runway shows to buyers and the media. The essence of this event is to let the industry know what is ‘in’ and what is ‘out’ for the season. Renowned fashion designers showcase their latest innovations in dress designs. Weeklong fashion events are held in cities all around the world. But the most prominent fashion weeks are held in the fashion capitals of the world being New York, London, Milan, and Paris. They are also known as the ‘big four’. These events receive major press coverage worldwide, in television networks and magazines like Vogue.



In the fashion industry, there are two major seasons per year: the Autumn/Winter and Spring/Summer. Therefore, fashion week happens twice a year in the major fashion capitals. The month February and March is the time when designers showcase their autumn and winter collections. On the other hand, spring and summer collections are showcased during September and October. The first fashion week is held in New York, followed by London, then Milan, and Paris. Fashion weeks are held several months in advance of the season to allow the media and consumers a chance to preview the designs for the following season. In addition, it allows time for retailers to arrange their purchase or incorporate the designers into their retail marketing.

Since the gap between the fashion weeks are too long, designers started to have inter-seasonal collections. These collections are more commercial than the main season and it help shorten the customer’s wait for the new season clothes. The inter-seasonal collections are Resort/Cruise, which are before Spring/Summer, and the Pre-Fall before the Autumn/Winter collection. There is no fix schedule for these shows in any of the major fashion capitals. However, these events typically happen three months after the main season shows. Some designers choose to host these events outside their home city such as Moscow, Los Angeles, and Monte Carlo.

Some fashion show events are genre-specific; including Miami Fashion Week and Rio Summer for swimwear, the haute couture shows in Paris is a one-of-a-kind designer original, Festive Wear at Bangalore Fashion Week, and Bridal Fashion Week.

The Best Retail Brands In Europe

Europe is famous not only for its beautiful sceneries, tasty food, and its different cultures. But most of all, this continent is famous for its fashion. It is the home to some of the most prominent retails brands seen all around the world. From supermarkets to pharmacy and fashion, the continent has a wealth of well-respected brands which consumers rely on for many essential day-to-day purchases.

retail brands from europe

retail brands from europe

If you ever visited Europe, you will notice that everyone is well-dressed even in grocery stores. You can see moms wearing high heels and skirts in schools and some are pushing strollers down the street towards the park. Men also know how to dress fashionably, from casual wear to formal. We live in a modern era where style and fashion are important. The clothes are used to assert ourselves as individuals but also to show us in the society. There are numerous brands of luxury clothing spread throughout the entire world that influence the fashion industry and it is them who dictate the latest trends.

Below is the list of best retail brands from Europe:

  • H&M: This is a Swedish multinational clothing company with their headquarters in Stockholm. It was founded by Erling Persson in Vasteras, Sweden in 1947. Back then it was known as ‘Hennes’, which means ‘for her’, a women’s clothing retailer. But after acquiring a men’s hunting clothes company, Mauritz Widforss, it led to H&M trading as a unisex brand.
  • IKEA: The world’s largest furniture retailer. In 1943, it was founded by Ingvar Kamprad in Almhult, Sweden. Originally, the company is a mail order business. But in 1948, it started selling furniture.
  • Zara: The Spanish clothing and accessories retailer founded by Amancio Ortega and Rosalia Mera. Their first shop was opened in La Coruna, Galicia, Spain in 1975. Today, there are over 2000 stores in 88 nations.
  • Carrefour: French multinational retailer with their headquarters in Boulogne, Billancourt, Paris. It is the fourth largest retail organization in the world, next to Wal-Mart, Tesco, and Costco.
  • Tesco: It was founded by Jack Cohen in 1919, where he sells groceries from a market stall in Well Street Market, Hackney, London. The company has now 6,784 stores in 12 countries.
  • Marks & Spencer: Founded in 1884 by Michael Marks and Thomas Spencer. Formerly, Marks owned a penny bazaar on Kirkgate. But after inviting Spencer to be his partner they switch into selling clothing, home products, and luxury food products.
  • Auchan: French retail group with their headquarters in Croix, close to Lille. It was first a self-service shop founded by Gérard Mulliez in 1961. Today, it has over 630 hypermarkets and 2400 supermarkets worldwide.
  • Boots: British pharmaceutical chain founded in 1849 by John Boot. He was a farmer from Nottingham and became an herbal remedy expert. When John died, his son Jesse helped his widowed wife. In 1920, Jesse Boot sold the business to US giant United Drug Company. However, in 1933 the business was bought back by Jesse’s son, John Campbell Boot, from the Americans.
  • Aldi: German discount supermarket chain. They have over 9,000 stores in 18 countries and a turnover in excess of €50 billion. It was founded by brothers Karl and Theo Albrecht in 1946. Aldi is a short term for Albrecht Diskont.
  • Sephora: chain of cosmetics stores founded by Dominique Mandonnaud in Paris back in 1970. Their main headquarter is still in the French capital.Nowadays, you can do business using the internet. You can advertise and introduce products and services using social media pages. If you are interested with online business, you should use different tools to help you in marketing your product. There are several marketing automation tool available in the internet. You can use ontraport vs infusionsoft, the two top performing tools.

Most Popular Fashion Designers

When it comes to fashion, everyone has different tastes. However, these top fashion designers have been adored by not only women all around the globe but also men. They have proven their incredible talents and risen to the top of the fashion world. Their shows and art work speak for themselves.

• Karl Lagerfeld

karl lagerfeld

karl lagerfeld

German fashion designer and photographer. In 1983, he became artistic director of the House of Chanel. He worked to create a collection of ready-to-wear for Chanel. He is also known as the creator of perfumes.

• Giorgio Armani

giorgio armani

giorgio armani

Since 1970, Giorgio Armani, creates new models of clothes in several fashion houses in Italy, in 1974 the world saw his first collection, the show which was a great success.

• Alberta Ferretti

alberta ferretti

alberta ferretti

He presented a beige crocheted dress length is just above the knee. Most dresses were simple, some are short, others long and draped. In 2009, opened its first boutique in Moscow in the shopping center Petrovsky Passage

• Vivienne Westwood

vivienne westwood

vivienne westwood

She’s a British fashion designer and businesswoman, largely responsible for bringing modern punk and new wave fashions into the mainstream. Her first catwalk show was presented in 1981, featuring the collaboration of Westwood and McLaren. The theme that year was Pirates.

• Sonia Rykiel

sonia rykiel

sonia rykiel

17 years ago, Sonia Rykiel took her first job as a designer showcase on one of their textile stores. In 1962, she made sweaters and clothing for pregnant women at her husband boutique, Laura. Since then, her designs gained popularity, and soon Rykiel was called “queen of knitwear.

• Valentino Garavani

valentino garavani

valentino garavani

Italian designer and founder of Valentino. He became interested in male and female fashion while attending high school in his hometown of Voghera. Valentino became famous for his red dresses, bright shade of which was called “Red of Valentino”

• Domenico Dolce and Stefano Gabbana – D&G

domenico dolce and stefano gabbana

domenico dolce and stefano gabbana

In 1987, they jointly presented the first collection of knitwear. At the same time under the brand name Dolce & Gabbana, they opened a store in Milan. In 1990, they created a collection of fashionable clothes for men. Since 2006, the house Dolce & Gabbana dresses Italian football team.

• Marc Jacobs

marc jacobs

marc jacobs

At an early age of fifteen, Jacobs worked as a stock boy at Charivari, a now-defunct avant-garde clothing boutique in New York City. He also designed his first collection for Reuben Thomas, Inc., under the Sketchbook label.

Highest Paid Young Models

In the world of luxury fashion, supermodels start strutting their stuff on the catwalk as young as 15 or 16. So usually, by the time they get to their twenties, they are seasoned vets already. They are also famous at their social media accounts like facebook and Instagram. These models don’t need additional likers, not like us. We can use to help us get more likes and be more popular with our peers.

• Lindsey Wixson

Often times, in the world of high fashion modeling, it’s best to have a different look and unique features that set you completely apart from the pack. That’s exactly the look that the 20-yr-old Wichita, Kansas native Wixson has, and she is riding it all the way to the top.

• Chanel Iman

Chanel Iman is only 24-yrs-old but she has been modelling for more than 10 years already. Some of her biggest clients include Victoria’s Secret and GAP, and she has walked the runways for uber-luxury brands like Balenciaga, Versace and Stella McCartney.

• Cara Delevingne

Cara is just 22-yrs-old and she has become one of the most recognizable “bad girl” supermodels in the world. She has walked the runway and done shows for Chanel and appeared in campaigns for Burberry, DKNY, Mulberry and La Perla.

• Kendall Jenner

cara delevingne

cara delevingne

Kendall Jenner has become one of the go-to models on the scene. She has appeared in fashion shows for all the top brands in Paris and Milan, and has been on the cover of so many top-tier magazines including: Harper’s Bazaar, Love, Allure, Interview and more.

• Kate Upton

She’s just 22-yrs-old but the attractive and voluptuous Kate Upton is earning tons of cash at a really fast rate. She is doing her thing in the movies now with roles in films and she’s also the face for Bobbi Brown cosmetics.

• Karlie Kloss

Karlie Kloss is another American model barely into her 20’s who is making an amazing amount of money in the glamorous fashion industry. She has been a Victoria’s Secret Angel for the last two years, and has also appeared in campaigns and walked runway shows for luxury brands.

10 Chinese Companies That Are Going Global

Chinese companies are now expanding all over the world. There are now several brands that are becoming popular to people. They are dominating different business industries not only in Asia, but in Europe and U.S. as well with their existing global presence, pending overseas transactions, and internationalization of their management team and user/customer base. Here is the list of Chinese companies that people should watch out:

10 Chinese Companies

10 Chinese Companies

  1. Lenovo: This company is famous for its 2005 acquisition of IBM’s ThinkPad division. In 2014, it also had two major acquisitions in the US: the Motorola Mobility and IBM’s x86 enterprise server division. It is continuously expanding its mobile business with its smartphones, tablets, and laptops.
  2. Dalian Wanda: This company is a diversified conglomerate and was able to acqure the AMC Entertainment in the U.S. back in 2012. Its founder Wang Jianlin has made overseas investments including Sunseeker yachts in UK and high-profile real estate acquisitions including Chicago’s third tallest building that will be built along Chicago River.
  3. Fosun: The company operates in a diverse range of sectors that include real estate, insurance, and healthcare. In 2014, they were able to acquire Michigan-based Meadowbrook Insurance. They also invested in multiple international real estate projects and currently engaged in a bidding war for French vacation resort firm, the Club Med.
  4. Huawei: They are currently gaining popularity all around the world except in U.S., where they are facing challenges in its core telecommunications equipment business. But despite this, their business is still booming overseas and many of its new products were featured at the 2015 Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas.
  5. Wanxiang: This is a Chinese automotive company and a new energy firm. Their overseas headquarters has been in North America since 1994, and they have acquired more than two dozen companies there. In 2014, they were able to purchase Fisker Automotive and there are several speculations that the company is going to compete with Tesla in the electric vehicle space.
  6. Alibaba: With the increasing popularity of online businesses, this e-commerce giant set a record breaking 2014 IPO in New York. They were able to acquire several businesses overseas particularly in the US and other Asian markets. They are also doing greenfield investments.
  7. Xiaomi: This is the world’s 4th largest smartphone maker. They are involved with development of smartphones, mobile apps, and related consumer electronics. This Chinese smartphone maker is becoming a serious competitor to global rivals Apple and Samsung.
  8. Baidu: They are offering services that include Chinese-language search engine for websites, audio files, and images. They have 57 search and community services including Baidu Bike, an online collaborative-built encyclopedia, and a searchable, keyword-based discussion forum. In 2014, they are pushing with Nokia partnership, Israeli start-up investment, and strategic stake in Uber.
  9. Tencent: This Chinese company is known for their gaming and social app. They became famous after their WeChat social messaging app was successfully launched.
  10. Bright Food: It is a multinational food and beverages manufacturing company with its headquarters in Shanghai, China. They made headlines when they announced their high-profile investments in the UK and New Zealand, and is aiming to achieve 25% of revenues from overseas by 2017.

Traditional Chinese Clothing

Part of the Chinese culture is their clothes. It has a vital part in their civilization, history, and culture. The basic features of traditional Chinese clothes are cross-collar, wrapping the right lapel over the left, tying with sash, and a form of blouse plus skirt or long gown. But with the modernization of almost everything, Chinese’s everyday clothes nowadays are similar to western countries. Today, traditional attires are only worn during festivals, ceremonies, and religious occasions. But these clothes are still often seen in Chinese television series and movies, especially those that are set in the early days of China.

Based from history, the first Chinese clothes were dated back to the later era of Paleolithic Times. The first materials used were animal skins with decorations of small stones and animal teeth. About 5,000 years ago, the ‘real clothes’ were invented by the Yellow Emperor. During the Shang Dynasty, the basic features of traditional Chinese attire were created, with the general pattern of blouse plus skirt. The long gown later appeared during the Zhou Dynasty and co-existed with the blouse-skirt combinations. But when the Republic of China was formed, Mao suit became popular among the males and cheongsam among the females. In 1970’s, the country implemented reform and opened policies, the masses then gradually turned to western-style clothes.

traditional chinese clothing

traditional chinese clothing

There are different types of Chinese clothing, which evolved over different dynasties.

  • Traditional Han Chinese Clothing or Han Fu: this attire is worn by the Han people from the enthronement of the Yellow Emperor. It is usually in the form of long gown, cross collar, wrapping the right lapel over the left, loose wide sleeves, and no buttons but with a sash.
  • Chinese suit or Tang Zhuang: It is the combination of the Manchu male jacket of the Qing Dynasty and the western style suit. It is usually straight collared with coiled buttons down the front. Its color and design are in traditional Chinese style but tailoring is western.
  • Cheongsam or Qi Pao: It originated from the Manchu female clothes and merged with western patterns. Its features include straight collar, strain on the waist, coiled buttons, and slits on both sides of the dress. The materials used are silk, cotton, or linen.
  • Chinese tunic suit or Zhongshan Zhuang: It is also known as Yat-sen suit designed by Dr. Sun Yat-sen. Its design is a combination of western-style suit and Chinese attire with a turn-down collar and four pockets with flaps. Chairman Mao Zedong frequently worn this attire, thus it was called as the Mao suit by westerners. Today, it is still worn by the country’s leaders when attending important occasions.
  • Dragon Robe: It is named because it has embroidered dragons on it. It can only be worn by the emperor, who was considered a dragon from heaven in the ancient times. Its features include round collar buttons on the right, and most of the time the color is bright yellow.
  • Traditional wedding costumes: This varies in different dynasties and time periods. However, red is the most used color because it is considered as lucky, happy, and auspicious in the country’s culture. Nowadays, they are still worn today by newlyweds with traditional style wedding ceremonies. The most common are red chaplet and official robes.
    There are several traditional Chinese clothes that have become an important part of their culture. It is one of the things that make their country famous. Even in western countries, this type of clothing is being worn by other people. If you are a fashion designer and interested to know more about traditional Chinese clothes, you can search the internet for different files that can help you. There are several videos on how to design and create it. If you wanted to download the video, you can surely do it in just a matter of seconds with the help of link generator. It will surely make your downloads faster, even if it has a large size. If you want to know more about link generator, just click here.

Chinese Supermodels

  • Zhao Lei

Born in 1986, Zhao Lei had been the only Chinese male model on the Top 50 Male Models released on 2014. He is not only in the Top 50, but also on the Money Guys list, showing his great popularity in the industry.

  • Hao Yunxiang

Born in 1991, Hao Yunxiang was a professional athlete before he started his model career. He entered the Top 50 list, together with Zhao Lei. He is also listed on the Trending ranking. In spring and summer 2014, he did several advertisements for Lane Crawford, Gap China and Maybelline and took Look books for Calvin Klein Jeans.

  • You Tianyi

Born in 1994, You Tianyi is the youngest model in the story. The 20-year-old girl has been on the list for two consecutive years.

  • Ming Xi

Born in 1989, Ming Xi has appeared on the list several times. People who pay attention to fashion will be familiar with her. She has been named one of the “Top 4 supermodels”, together with Liu Wen, Qin Shupei and Sun Feifei.

  • Ju Xiaowen

She is known for her small eyes and piquant expressions. When she began her career in 2011, she was chosen as one of ten newcomers by

  • He Sui

She is famous for her long black hair and thick eyebrows, with the image of an “Oriental Muse.”. She participated in the Victoria’s Secret fashion show for two years running, between 2011 and 2012.

  • Sun Feifei

The Trending ranking, new ranking on this year, listed models that are doing big things. Sun Feifei is the only one on the ranking.

  • Qin Shupei

Born in 1989, Qin Shupei ranked on the Money Girl list, together with Liu Wen. She became famous after she took off her high-heeled shoes at the Burberry show in spring and summer 2011.

  • Liu Wen

Liu Wen can be found in prestigious fashion magazines and as the face of global luxury brands including Calvin Klein and Lane Crawford. She has carried on the best achievements of Chinese models since her first appearance on the Top 50 list of in 2009. Liu was the first and only Chinese model to appear in the Victoria’s Secret fashion show for two years running, 2009 and 2010.

Textile Companies in China

China’s textile industry contributes significantly to the country’s exports. Due to rising labor cost and overseas competition, the industry leaders have to put more effort into innovation and quality improvement, just like in cars. There are a lot of car brands that people use every day which help them in their works.

  1. Jiangsu Hengli Group

Jiangsu Hengli Group Company Limited is a large-sized yarn dyeing, weaving, finishing and washing enterprise with total assets up to RMB 140,000,000. As it is core-subsidiary, Chang Zhou Lanlrng yarn-dyed fabric mill is empowered to engage in import and export trade. There are three main series of products that they manufacture: Indigo denims, Yan dyed Fabrics and Yarn Dyed Stretch Fabric.

  1. Shangtex Holding Co Ltd

Founded in 1992, Shanghai Textile Development Corporation. Ltd is an investment management corporation affiliated to Shanghai Textile Holding Corporation with a registration capital of 210 million yuan, devoted to such core trades as financial investments, high-end industries, housing development, etc.

With advantages in technology, management, funds and human resource, the corporation, since its establishment, has taken a leading position in the market, strengthened central businesses, enjoyed a steady increase in benefits and initiated a virtuous circle in development.

  1. Lu Thai Textile Co Ltd

Lu Thai Textile Company Limited manufactures and sells yarn dyed fabrics in the People’s Republic of China and internationally. It offers combed cotton and blended yarns; yarns and fabrics of cotton, fiber, silk, wool, chemical fiber, and other materials; shirts; and dyeing fabrics, including non-iron, digital printing, stretch, pant, and garment fabrics.

  1. Huafu Top Dyed Melange Yarn Co Ltd

The Company operates its businesses through research, development, manufacture and distribution of dyed yarns and grey yarns; dying, research, development and manufacture of color fibers; manufacture of cotton webs; processing of twist yarns, as well as foreign investment, among others. It primarily provides dyed yarns, as well as non-dyed spinning yarns and threads, among others.

  1. Weiqiao Textile Co Ltd

As the largest cotton textile manufacturer in China, Weiqiao Textile Company Limited together with its subsidiaries principally engaged in the production, sale and distribution of cotton yarn, grey fabric and denim. They are the largest cotton textile manufacturer in the world and one of top-500 enterprises of China and one of top-26 super-large enterprises of Shandong province.

Chinese Models

Nowadays, Chinese models are becoming popular in Western countries. With their dark and round eyes, straight black hair, small nose, wide cheekbones and complexion usually described as ‘yellow skin’, their exotic features are being appreciated by people from the West. As we can see from watching Western movies or reading international magazines, Chinese models can be seen in the industry. Here is the list of well-known Chinese models all over the world:

  • Liu Wen: She is the first Asian model that was included in the Forbes’ magazine list of highest paid models. And also, the first Asian model to appear on the catwalk for Victoria’s Secret. She attained a beauty contract with cosmetics gianst Estée Lauder. She was also able to appear on several catwalks of famous brands such as Prada, Balenciaga, Alexander Wang, Jason Wu, and Jean Paul Gaultier.
  • Fei Fei Sun: She was one of the big winners of Elite Model Look’s 2008 in Sanya, China. She was able to walk the runway with brands of Dries Van Noten and Louis Vuitton. She was also the first Asian model to have a solo cover for Vogue Italia.
  • Du Juan: In 2005, she debuted on the runway in New York for Alexandre Herchcovitch, Custo Barcelona, and United Bamboo. She was one of the models featured in the cover of French Vogue. She also worked with several famous brands and designers like Yves Saint Laurent, Dries Van Noten, Hermès, Givenchy, Gap, Swarovski, Christian Dior and Louis Vuitton.
  • Lu Yan: With her small eyes, flat nose and freckled face, she was considered as “ugly” by Chinese standards. But on 2009, she rose to fame when she won second place at the International Supermodel Pageant. She appeared on top fashion magazines including Elle and Cosmopolitan. She also became the face of various luxury brands like Hermes and Benetton.
  • Sui He: She is known for being the first Asian face of Shiseido, first Asian model to open a Ralph Lauren runway show and the second model of Chinese descent to walk in the Victoria’s Secret Fashion Show after Liu Wen.


Retail in the Chinese Market

China is becoming popular in terms of marketing top fashion brands. And based from the reports and surveys, Chinese were able to surpass the American shoppers as the number one consumers of luxury goods. Nowadays, we can observe that Chinese became more stylish. Several Chinese models are becoming famous all over the world like Liu Wen and Fei Fei Sun, who walk the runway under the names of famous designers and top fashion brands. Thus, it is not surprising that Chinese people are attracted to purchase top brands of clothes.


In order to compete with the increasing demand for fashion, several local retailers and apparel companies are adapting to the situation. They follow the current fashion trend from well-known fashion companies, and then try to produce their own designs that are considered as fashionable. Some of them opened a ‘multi-label store’ or also known as ‘concept store’. One of the famous concept stores in China is Triple Major. In this particular store, they sell multiple brands of clothing, shoes, bags and accessories. Using this strategy, they will attract more customers by offering a wide range of selection. Another strategy they are using is promoting their local business through the use of internet. Online shopping is quite famous nowadays. If you are an aspiring entrepreneur and know a lot about computers, you can definitely use it to your advantage. You can use a proxy server for your small business; it will enable you to share internet connection using LAN. If you are interested to know more, you can visit that offers different proxy servers. Here are also some of the advantages if you use a proxy server:

  • It will speed up your internet surfing.
  • It can hide your IP address, which enable you to surf anonymously and protect your computer from cyber-attacks.
  • It implements internet access control
  • It can also scan outbound content that can be used as data leak protection

Up- and –Coming Chinese Designers

Thinking of a design, making these designs into clothes and actually making these designs look cohesive in a runway show requires huge work. Designers have to also make these garments sellable for the retailers and the boutique owners.

Here are a few designers that made it work in the runway. They also unique visions that made all the audience gasp in awe:

  • Babyghost

The designers behind Babyghost are Qiaoran Huang and Joshua Hupper. These two both interned for Diane von Furstenberg. Their Fall 2014 collection shows refined sportiness. Huang and Hupper used fur and leather with athletic silhouettes.

Babyghost hit it off this past year even though it was founded in 2010. Their style is a mixture of goth and glam street wear, cozy knots and riot sensibilities.



  • 5:31 Jérôme

The 5 and 31 refers to the date that Jérôme LaMaar was born. Hidden zippers are LaMaar’s trademark. He always used luxurious fabrics like leather, silk and raffia.

Jérôme LaMaar’s clothes in the runway show both crass and clash. His collection shows raw sex appeal as well as sophistication.2

  • Daniel Silverstain

Daniel Silverstain’s creations aim for innovation, essentiality and futurism. He is also fascinated with architecture and industrial designs which she shows in his clothes.

Daniel Silvertain’s Fall Winter Collection is inspired by his personal travels to India. India’s heritage and architecture can be seen in his collection. He used vibrant colors, textures and shapes together with geometric silhouettes came from the rich architectures seen in India.


  • Kim Haller

Kim Haller is not a stranger to the knitwear fashion scene. For the past 2 decades, she has been overseeing the knot program for various international labels.

Her collections of knitwear are the coziest works of art. Let me tell, you they are not boring and simple as some might think, they are edgy and modern. Haller’s knitwear collection is futuristic and a” must have”.


  • Miunika

Sisters Tina and Nikita Satradhar is a finalist and awarded winners of a prestigious design competition. Their brand name is a combination of their nicknames.

Their Fall Winter 15 Collection is inspired by planning a kid’s birthday party. The cakes, birthday decorations, paper crowns and the gift wrapping and appear fringes are their inspiration. They translated these in the form of embellishments.